Slika je simbolična (foto: Bobo).
Več novih znanstvenih študij je pokazalo, da omikron manj prizadene pljuča, ampak se bolj širi v grlu. Znanstveniki menijo, da to pojasnjuje hitro širjenje omikrona, a da je ta zato manj usoden od delte in drugih različic koronavirusa.

Podatki šestih raziskovalnih študij, ki jih navaja Guardian, kažejo, da se različica omikron bolj širi v grlu kot v pljučih. To bi lahko pojasnilo hitro širjenje omikrona, hkrati pa so znanstveniki prepričani, da je novi sev manj smrtonosen od ostalih. 

Študije so pokazale, da različica omikron ne poškoduje pljuč v tolikšni meri kot delta in ostale različice novega koronavirusa. 

»Rezultat številnih mutacij virusa je, da omikron napade drugo vrsto celic v telesu. Napade zgornja dihala, celice v grlu. Tam se veliko hitreje množi kot globoko v pljučih,« je pojasnil profesor virologije z univerze College London Deenan Pillay

Omikron se hitreje množi v grlu

»Študija je resda preliminarna, a vse kažejo v to smer,« je še dodal. Ker se virus hitreje množi v grlu, to pomeni, da je hitreje prenosljiv, kot v primeru omikrona, navaja Guardian.

Študija raziskovalcev medicinske fakultete Univerze v Hongkongu ugotavlja, da se omikron v dihalih razmnoži kar 70-krat hitreje kot delta. 

So vzorci iz grla pri omikronu bolj zanesljivi? 

Zaradi omenjenih ugotovitev se poraja vprašanje, katera vrsta testiranja je najbolj učinkovita za zaznavanje okužbe z omikronom.

Nekateri znanstveniki zato predlagajo, da bi bili v uporabi hitri testi z vzetimi brisi iz žrela in nosu. 

V nekaterih državah že zdaj brise jemljejo iz grla in ne iz nosno-žrelnega prostora kot pri nas. Bolniki, ki so zboleli z različico omikron, poročajo o tem, da je test pokazal negativen rezultat, ko so bris vzeli iz nosu, in pozitivnega, ko so ga vzeli iz grla.

Najbolje kombinirani test – bris nosne votline in bris žrela

Tudi profesorica Jennifer Rohn z University College London je za Guardian povedala, da je bil rezultat njenega brisa iz nosa negativen, tisti, vzet iz žrela, pa pozitiven.

Iz navedena izhaja, da bi bilo smiselno, da si ob samotestiranju s hitrim testom doma najprej vzamemo bris iz grla in nato še iz nosu. 

Ob tem je priporočljivo, da nas ob simptomih, ki so podobni prehladu, osebni zdravnik naroči na PCR testiranje. Tovrstni testi so namreč najbolj zanesljivi, ne glede na različico covida-19

Pri okužbi z omikronom nekoliko drugačni simptomi

Kako vemo, ali smo okuženi z omikronom? Simptomi omikrona so lahko drugačni kot pri prejšnjih sevih. 

Najpogostejši simptomi so boleče in razdraženo grlo, kašelj, zamašen nos in izcedek iz nosu ter utrujenost. V nasprotju s starejšimi različicami oboleli redkeje poročajo izgubi voha in okusa. To je lahko torej eden od znakov, po katerem lahko prepoznate, ali ste okuženi z omikronom ali delto.

Kot enega glavnih simptomov navajajo tudi močno znojenje, še posebej ponoči, poleg tega pa so lahko prisotni še glavobol, trebušni krči, bruhanje in driska.

Je za omikron značilno hitrejše okrevanje in manj resnih zapletov? 

Raziskovalci iz Univerze v Liverpoolu so opravili testiranja na miših in ugotovili, da so tiste, ki so bile okužene z omikronom, izgubile manj telesne teže, prav tako so imele manjšo virusno obremenitev. 

Tudi ameriški raziskovalci so v študiji, objavljeni v reviji Nature, ugotovili, da so miši, okužene z omikronom, izgubile manj telesne mase in da so imele nižjo virusno obremenitev.

»Testiranja na živalih so pokazala, da je potek bolezni manj resen kot pri različici delta in kot pri izvornem novem koronavirusu iz Vuhana. Kot kaže, tudi hitreje mine, živali so se hitreje regenerirale,« je povedal profesor James Steward.

Kako dolga je inkubacijska doba omikrona?

Po prvih raziskavah je lahko čas, ki je potreben, da okužena oseba razvije simptome po izpostavljenosti, pri omikronu krajši kot pri prejšnjih različicah. 

Pri prvotni različici je bil ta čas lahko tudi več kot en teden, pri različici delta okrog štiri dni, pri omikronu pa po navedbah ameriškega centra za nadzor nad nalezljivimi boleznimi le od 33 do 75 ur.

Da je pot omikrona v človeško telo drugačna od drugih različic, so ugotovili tudi na Centru za proučevanje virusov na Univerzi Glasgow. Pred okužbo niso v celoti zaščiteni niti osnovno cepljeni niti prebolevniki.

Kot kaže, omikron pri tistih, ki so prejeli dva odmerka cepiva proti covidu-19, zaobide imunski sistem, vendar pa naj bi ga tretji odmerek cepiva »delno obnovil«.

Raziskovalci sicer opozarjajo, da so vse omenjene raziskave preliminarne in da bodo potrebne dodatne raziskave.

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