Prvi monitoring divjih čebel v letu 2021 ni prinesel spodbudnih rezultatov, saj so našteli kar 82 odstotkov manj čmrljev kot lani.

Najbolj verjetna razlaga za upad je bilo izjemno neugodno vreme spomladi, pri čemer Nacionalni inštitut za biologijo opozarja, da je raziskava opraševalcev v sadovnjakih sicer pokazala, da je bilo spomladi, v času cvetenja sadnega drevja, število čmrljev podobno kot prejšnja leta.

To pomeni, da so čmrlje matice uspešno prezimile, a verjetno zaradi slabega vremena, pozebe in dolgotrajnega dežja matice niso dobile dovolj hrane, da bi lahko uspešno gnezdile.

Dodatno je težava v upadu čmrljev to, da je njihova vloga opraševalcev še posebej pomembna v slabem vremenu, saj »so namreč znani po tem, da oprašujejo tudi v dežju, mrazu in vetru«.

S podobno težavo kot čmrlji so se sicer soočale tudi čebele, a te lažje preživijo slabe razmere, saj jim lahko pomagajo čebelarji, so še zapisali na Nacionalnem inštitutu za biologijo.

»Nihanje števila živali, tudi čmrljev, je sicer v naravi nekaj običajnega, vendar bi nas tako velik upad v enem letu moral skrbeti. Podnebne spremembe oziroma vremenski ekstremi, ki se kažejo kot zgodnje pomladi, ki jim sledijo pozebe in dolgotrajne poletne suše, uničujejo prehranske vire opraševalcev,« opozarjajo.

Življenjski prostor opraševalcev bi morali veliko bolj varovati

Za opraševalce je zaradi sprememb v okolju nasploh vedno manj hrane, zato bi morali varovati njihov življenjski prostor, »v prvi vrsti pisane cvetoče travnike, tako na podeželju kot v mestih«.

V Sloveniji poleg kranjske čebele živi še prek 500 vrst divjih čebel, oprašujejo pa tudi muhe, metulji, nekateri hrošči in ose.

Divji opraševalci po navedbah Nacionalnega inštituta za biologijo opravijo vsaj polovico opraševanja v kmetijstvu, njihova vloga pa je še pomembnejša v naravi. Vrednost opraševanja žuželk za slovensko kmetijstvo je ocenjena na 120 milijonov evrov letno, so navedli.

Monitoring divjih čebel je triletni pilotni projekt, ki se je začel lani in poteka v Notranjskem regijskem parku, na Ljubljanskem barju, na Kranjsko-Sorškem polju, Celjskem in v Ljubljani na skupaj 50 vzorčnih mestih.

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